(there are 104 questions in this topic)
Printable list of all acid-base disorder SAQs
Metabolic acidosis; also errors of ABG measurement (the "lactate gap")
Causes of metabolic alkalosis - due to GI chloride loss
Causes of metabolic acidosis
Mixed metabolic and respiratory acidosis due to sympathomimetic toxidrome
Causes of lactic acidosis
Causes of lactic acidosis... also, hypomagnesemia as a cause of seizures
Causes of lactic acidosis following abdominal surgery and seizures
Causes of metabolic acidosis : a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis.
Base excess and standard base excess
Monitoring blood lactate levels in the critically ill
Sources of error in blood sample analysis: effects of a delay in sample processing.
Causes of lactic acidosis: the patient recovering from a generalised seizure
Causes of metabolic alkalosis
Causes of lactic acidosis - in this case, its probably meningococcal sepsis
Causes of metabolic acidosis: severe pneumonia with a raised lactate
High anion gap (lactic acidosis), with respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis.
Respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis: eg. an exacerbation of COPD.
Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis due to normal saline.
ABG interpretation: a mixed respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis.
Pyroglutamic acidosis, with a specific focus on the risk factors which predispose to it.
High anion gap metabolic acidosis due to lactate; with attention to the causes of lactic acidosis.
Causes of a high anion gap and high osmolar gap
Causes of a normal anion gap and high osmolar gap
Stewart's physicochemical approach to acid-base analysis
Metabolic alkalosis with severe hypokalemia - likely, hyperaldosteronism.
Lithium toxicity featuring a negative anion gap
Citrate toxicity: high anion gap acidosis and a high total : ionised calcium ratio.
Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis with a negative urinary anion gap.
Ketoacidosis: particularly, its various causes.
Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis in a Scotsman with an Addisonian crisis
Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis due to a toluene-induced Type 1 (distal) RTA.
High anion gap metabolic acidosis due to lactic acidosis.
Metabolic alkalosis following the resolution of a respiratory acidosis.
High anion gap metabolic acidosis: diabetic ketoacidosis with HONK
High anion gap metabolic acidosis in the context of rhabdomyolysis.
Causes of lactic acidosis (red cell transketolase comes up)
Causes of metabolic acidosis - mixed HAGMA and NAGMA.
High anion gap acidosis plus a metabolic and respiratory alkalosis of salicylate overdose
High anion gap metabolic acidosis with a metabolic alkalosis.
Acute respiratory acidosis with a metabolic alkalosis
Acute respiratory alkalosis due to hyperventilation
A mixed alkalosis - combination of respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis
ABG interpretation in pregnancy - respiratory acidosis following a caesarian.
Causes of lactic acidosis in sepsis; a triple acid-base disorder
Causes of metabolic acidosis - HAGMA with a raised osmolar gap.
Causes of metabolic acidosis - a Type 1 renal tubular acidosis.
Pyroglutamic acidosis, again.
High anion gap metabolic acidosis in HONK; also, complications of HONK.
Causes of lactic acidosis- an abdominal catastrophe.
Causes of lactic acidosis in sepsis, again.
HAGMA: diabetic ketoacidosis with HONK and respiratory acidosis.
Pyroglutamic acidosis mixed with a NAGMA.
Causes of metabolic alkalosis- resolution of a chronic respiratory acidosis.
Metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation.
Causes of lactic acidosis in sepsis
Causes of metabolic acidosis - toxic alcohol ingestion
PaO2/FiO2 ratio criteria for ARDS. Also, calculation of bicarbonate replacement dose.
Lactic acidosis and respiratory acidosis after seizures
HAGMA with a low albumin; also independent variables in Stewart's approach.
Mixed HAGMA and metabolic alkalosis in HONK, and calculation of corrected sodium.
Causes of a normal anion gap and high osmolar gap
Causes of lactic acidosis in sepsis (and causes of lactic acidosis in general)
A day 5 post-trauma patient has fallen apart. What are the causes of lactic acidosis?
Lactic acidosis which resolves rapidly - seizures, cardiac arrest or hanging.
Calculation of the anion gap to determine "has this ketoacidosis resolved?"
Metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis
Toxins which cause a raised osmolar gap as well as a raised anion gap.
How the blood gas analyser measures ABG variables
Causes of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis
HAGMA in diabetic ketoacidosis: "does this patient still need insulin?"
A diagnostic approach to metabolic alkalosis
Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis with hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis.
The anion gap as a diagnostic tool: advantages and disadvantages
Diagnosis and management of metabolic alkalosis
Define base excess; discuss why it may change independently from the anion gap.
High anion gap metabolic acidosis in HONK.
Mixed respiratory acidosis and lactic acidosis; also ventilation strategies in asthma.
Assessment of acid-base compensation: Boston and Copenhagen methods
A diagnostic approach to metabolic acidosis